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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 449; doi:10.3390/molecules21040449

Effects of Phenolic Acids on the Growth and Production of T‐2 and HT‐2 Toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides

1
Veterinary Faculty, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Universidad de Zaragoza‐CITA, c/Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
2
MycSA, INRA, 71 Avenue Edouard Bourlaux, CS 20032, 33882 Villenave d´Ornon cedex, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 4 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Toxins)
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Abstract

The effect of natural phenolic acids was tested on the growth and production of T‐2 and HT‐2 toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides, on Mycotoxin Synthetic medium. Plates treated with 0.5 mM of each phenolic acid (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p‐coumaric) and controls without phenolic acid were incubated for 14 days at 25 °C. Fungal biomass of F. langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides was not reduced by the phenolic acids. However, biosynthesis of T‐2 toxin by F. langsethiae was significantly reduced by chlorogenic (23.1%) and ferulic (26.5%) acids. Production of T‐2 by F. sporotrichioides also decreased with ferulic acid by 23% (p < 0.05). In contrast, p‐coumaric acid significantly stimulated the production of T‐2 and HT‐2 toxins for both strains. A kinetic study of F. langsethiae with 1 mM ferulic acid showed a significant decrease in fungal biomass, whereas T‐2 production increased after 10 days of incubation. The study of gene expression in ferulic supplemented cultures of F. langsethiae revealed a significant inhibition for Tri5, Tri6 and Tri12 genes, while for Tri16 the decrease in gene expression was not statistically significant. Overall, results indicated that phenolic acids had a variable effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin production, depending on the strain and the concentration and type of phenolic acid assayed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium langsethiae; Fusarium sporotrichioides; type A trichothecene; phenolic acid; Tri gene Fusarium langsethiae; Fusarium sporotrichioides; type A trichothecene; phenolic acid; Tri gene
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ferruz, E.; Atanasova‐Pénichon, V.; Bonnin‐Verdal, M.; Marchegay, G.; Pinson‐Gadais, L.; Ducos, C.; Lorán, S.; Ariño, A.; Barreau, C.; Richard‐Forget, F. Effects of Phenolic Acids on the Growth and Production of T‐2 and HT‐2 Toxins by Fusarium langsethiae and F. sporotrichioides. Molecules 2016, 21, 449.

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