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Molecules 2016, 21(4), 422; doi:10.3390/molecules21040422

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Chaenomeles sinensis Leaf Extracts on LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

1
Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 13539, Korea
2
Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Silla University, Busan 46958, Korea
4
Department of Food Science and Technology, Korea National University of Transportation, Jeungpyeong 27909, Korea
5
Korea Nokyong Research Center, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 28 January 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 28 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

The fruit of Chaenomeles sinensis has been traditionally used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of various human ailments, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and so on, but the pharmacological applications of the leaf part of the plant have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the various radical scavenging activities and anti-inflammatory effects of different Chaenomeles sinensis leaf (CSL) extracts. The water extract showed a higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. However the ethanolic extracts showed higher NO scavenging activity than water extract, therefore the ethanolic extract of CSL was examined for anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The 70% ethanol extract of CSL (CSLE) has higher anti-inflammatory activity and significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, CSLE suppressed LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production, IL-1β and phospho-STAT1 expression. In this study, we investigated the effect of CSLE on the production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of the TRIF-dependent pathways. Furthermore, we evaluated the role of CSLE on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. Our results suggest that CSLE attenuates the LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in macrophages through regulating the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing scientific support for its traditional uses in treating various inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatory; Chaenomeles sinensis leaf; RAW 264.7 cells; STAT1; TRIF-dependent pathways anti-inflammatory; Chaenomeles sinensis leaf; RAW 264.7 cells; STAT1; TRIF-dependent pathways
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Han, Y.-K.; Kim, Y.-S.; Natarajan, S.B.; Kim, W.-S.; Hwang, J.-W.; Jeon, N.-J.; Jeong, J.-H.; Moon, S.-H.; Jeon, B.-T.; Park, P.-J. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Chaenomeles sinensis Leaf Extracts on LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells. Molecules 2016, 21, 422.

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