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Molecules 2016, 21(3), 370; doi:10.3390/molecules21030370

Production of Fusaric Acid by Fusarium spp. in Pure Culture and in Solid Medium Co-Cultures

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, EPGL, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
2
Mycology and Biotechnology Group, Institute for Plant Production Sciences IPS, Agroscope, Route de Duillier 50, P. O. Box 1012, CH-1260 Nyon, Switzerland
3
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Département Systématique et Évolution, CP 39, ISYEB, UMR 7205 CNRS MNHN UPMC EPHE, 12 rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France
4
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Laboratory of Mycology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current Address: Department of Chemistry, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
§
Current Address: Groupe Mer, Molécules, Santé-EA 2160, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, Université de Nantes, 9 rue Bias, BP 53508, F-44035 Nantes Cedex 01, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcello Iriti and Maria Halabalaki
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 10 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Metabolomics within Natural Products Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1991 KB, uploaded 18 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The ability of fungi isolated from nails of patients suffering from onychomycosis to induce de novo production of bioactive compounds in co-culture was examined. Comparison between the metabolite profiles produced by Sarocladium strictum, by Fusarium oxysporum, and by these two species in co-culture revealed de novo induction of fusaric acid based on HRMS. Structure confirmation of this toxin, using sensitive microflow NMR, required only three 9-cm Petri dishes of fungal culture. A targeted metabolomics study based on UHPLC-HRMS confirmed that the production of fusaric acid was strain-dependent. Furthermore, the detected toxin levels suggested that onychomycosis-associated fungal strains of the F. oxysporum and F. fujikuroi species complexes are much more frequently producing fusaric acid, and in higher amount, than strains of the F. solani species complex. Fusarium strains producing no significant amounts of this compound in pure culture, were shown to de novo produce that compound when grown in co-culture. The role of fusaric acid in fungal virulence and defense is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-locus phylogenetic analyses; microorganism co-culture; solid medium; induction; fusaric acid; confrontation zone; UHPLC-TOFMS multi-locus phylogenetic analyses; microorganism co-culture; solid medium; induction; fusaric acid; confrontation zone; UHPLC-TOFMS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bohni, N.; Hofstetter, V.; Gindro, K.; Buyck, B.; Schumpp, O.; Bertrand, S.; Monod, M.; Wolfender, J.-L. Production of Fusaric Acid by Fusarium spp. in Pure Culture and in Solid Medium Co-Cultures. Molecules 2016, 21, 370.

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