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Molecules 2016, 21(3), 302; doi:10.3390/molecules21030302

Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits

School of Pharmacy, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, Shandong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira
Received: 24 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [948 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  


Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus; xanthine oxidase; aurantii fructus immaturus; hesperetin Citrus; xanthine oxidase; aurantii fructus immaturus; hesperetin

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Liu, K.; Wang, W.; Guo, B.-H.; Gao, H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, X.-H.; Yao, H.-L.; Cheng, K. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits. Molecules 2016, 21, 302.

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