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Molecules 2016, 21(3), 272; doi:10.3390/molecules21030272

Application of Ionic Liquids in Pot-in-Pot Reactions

1
Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Arnold and Mabel Beckman Laboratories of Chemical Synthesis, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
3
Warner Babcock Institute for Green Chemistry, Wilmington, MA 01887, USA
4
Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
5
Microelectronic Research Center, Iowa State University, 133 Applied Sciences Complex I, 1925 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011, USA
6
Biopolymer and Biocomposites Research Team, Center for Bioplastics and Biocomposites, Iowa State University, 1041 Food Sciences Building, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jason P. Hallett
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1632 KB, uploaded 26 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Pot-in-pot reactions are designed such that two reaction media (solvents, catalysts and reagents) are isolated from each other by a polymeric membrane similar to matryoshka dolls (Russian nesting dolls). The first reaction is allowed to progress to completion before triggering the second reaction in which all necessary solvents, reactants, or catalysts are placed except for the starting reagent for the target reaction. With the appropriate trigger, in most cases unidirectional flux, the product of the first reaction is introduced to the second medium allowing a second transformation in the same glass reaction pot—albeit separated by a polymeric membrane. The basis of these reaction systems is the controlled selective flux of one reagent over the other components of the first reaction while maintaining steady-state catalyst concentration in the first “pot”. The use of ionic liquids as tools to control chemical potential across the polymeric membranes making the first pot is discussed based on standard diffusion models—Fickian and Payne’s models. Besides chemical potential, use of ionic liquids as delivery agent for a small amount of a solvent that slightly swells the polymeric membrane, hence increasing flux, is highlighted. This review highlights the critical role ionic liquids play in site-isolation of multiple catalyzed reactions in a standard pot-in-pot reaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: pot-in-pot reactions; unidirectional flux; cascade reactions; membrane separation; multi-step synthesis pot-in-pot reactions; unidirectional flux; cascade reactions; membrane separation; multi-step synthesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Çınar, S.; Schulz, M.D.; Oyola-Reynoso, S.; Bwambok, D.K.; Gathiaka, S.M.; Thuo, M. Application of Ionic Liquids in Pot-in-Pot Reactions. Molecules 2016, 21, 272.

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