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Molecules 2016, 21(3), 260; doi:10.3390/molecules21030260

Antidepressant Potential of Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched Extract from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Bark with Neuron Protection and Promotion of Serotonin Release through Enhancing Synapsin I Expression

1
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Sichuan Medical University, Luzhou 86646-000, Sichuan, China
2
Chengdu Analytical Applications Center, Shimadzu (China) Co. Ltd., Chengdu 86610-063, Sichuan, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luigia Trabace
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 17 February 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
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Abstract

Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (E. ulmoides) is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects, used as a tonic medicine in China and other countries. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is an important compound in E. ulmoides with neuroprotective, cognition improvement and other pharmacological effects. However, it is unknown whether chlorogenic acid-enriched Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark has antidepressant potential through neuron protection, serotonin release promotion and penetration of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present study, we demonstrated that CGA could stimulate axon and dendrite growth and promote serotonin release through enhancing synapsin I expression in the cells of fetal rat raphe neurons in vitro. More importantly, CGA-enriched extract of E. ulmoides (EUWE) at 200 and 400 mg/kg/day orally administered for 7 days showed antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test of KM mice. Furthermore, we also found CGA could be detected in the the cerebrospinal fluid of the rats orally treated with EUWE and reach the level of pharmacological effect for neuroprotection by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The findings indicate CGA is able to cross the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier to exhibit its neuron protection and promotion of serotonin release through enhancing synapsin I expression. This is the first report of the effect of CGA on promoting 5-HT release through enhancing synapsin I expression and CGA-enriched EUWE has antidepressant-like effect in vivo. EUWE may be developed as the natural drugs for the treatment of depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorogenic acid; Eucommia ulmoides Oliver; cerebrospinal fluid; UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS; antidepressant; raphe neurons; serotonin; synapsin I chlorogenic acid; Eucommia ulmoides Oliver; cerebrospinal fluid; UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS; antidepressant; raphe neurons; serotonin; synapsin I
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, J.; Chen, H.; Li, H.; Tang, Y.; Yang, L.; Cao, S.; Qin, D. Antidepressant Potential of Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched Extract from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Bark with Neuron Protection and Promotion of Serotonin Release through Enhancing Synapsin I Expression. Molecules 2016, 21, 260.

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