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Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1649; doi:10.3390/molecules21121649

Phenols and Polyphenols as Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

1
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
2
Neurofarba Department, Sezione di Chimica Farmaceutica e Nutraceutica, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via U. Schiff 6, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean-Yves Winum
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors from Natural Products)

Abstract

Phenols are among the largest and most widely distributed groups of secondary metabolites within the plant kingdom. They are implicated in multiple and essential physiological functions. In humans they play an important role as microconstituents of the daily diet, their consumption being considered healthy. The physical and chemical properties of phenolic compounds make these molecules versatile ligands, capable of interacting with a wide range of targets, such as the Carbonic Anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1). CAs reversibly catalyze the fundamental reaction of CO2 hydration to bicarbonate and protons in all living organisms, being actively involved in the regulation of a plethora of patho/physiological processes. This review will discuss the most recent advances in the search of naturally occurring phenols and their synthetic derivatives that inhibit the CAs and their mechanisms of action at molecular level. Plant extracts or mixtures are not considered in the present review. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs); metalloenzymes; phenols; polyphenols; flavonoids carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs); metalloenzymes; phenols; polyphenols; flavonoids
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Karioti, A.; Carta, F.; Supuran, C.T. Phenols and Polyphenols as Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors. Molecules 2016, 21, 1649.

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