Next Article in Journal
Development of Amylose- and β-Cyclodextrin-Based Chiral Fluorescent Sensors Bearing Terthienyl Pendants
Next Article in Special Issue
The Effect of Polyphenols on Protein Degradation Pathways: Implications for Neuroprotection
Previous Article in Journal
Tropane and Granatane Alkaloid Biosynthesis: A Systematic Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cardamonin, a Novel Antagonist of hTRPA1 Cation Channel, Reveals Therapeutic Mechanism of Pathological Pain
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessShort Note
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1521; doi:10.3390/molecules21111521

Anti-Inflammatory Chemical Profiling of the Australian Rainforest Tree Alphitonia petriei (Rhamnaceae)

1
School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
2
Ecobiotics Limited, 7 Penda Street, Yungaburra, QLD 4884, Australia
3
Molecular Medicine Research Group, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
4
National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [406 KB, uploaded 11 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Chronic inflammation is an important pathological condition in many human diseases, and due to the side effects of the currently used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, discovery of novel anti-inflammatory drugs is of general interest. Anti-inflammatory activity guided compound isolation from the plant Alphitonia petriei led to the isolation of the known plant sterols emmolic acid (1), alphitolic acid (2), trans- and cis-coumaroyl esters of alphitolic acid (3 and 4) and betulinic acid (5). A detailed spectroscopic analysis led to the structure elucidation of the alphitolic acid derivatives (15), and the semi-synthetic emmolic acid acetate (6). When tested in LPS (Lipopolysaccharides) + IFN-γ (Interferon gamma) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, all compounds except (1) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 values as low as 1.7 μM) in terms of downregulation of NO and TNF-α production, but also demonstrated some considerable cytotoxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatory; alphitolic acid; nitric oxide; TNF-α; natural products anti-inflammatory; alphitolic acid; nitric oxide; TNF-α; natural products
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Raju, R.; Gunawardena, D.; Ahktar, M.A.; Low, M.; Reddell, P.; Münch, G. Anti-Inflammatory Chemical Profiling of the Australian Rainforest Tree Alphitonia petriei (Rhamnaceae). Molecules 2016, 21, 1521.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top