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Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1350; doi:10.3390/molecules21101350

Protective Effect of the Plant Extracts of Erythroxylum sp. against Toxic Effects Induced by the Venom of Lachesis muta Snake

1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute of Biology, Federal Fluminense University, Niterói 24020-141, RJ, Brazil
2
Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Amapá, Macapá 68903-419, AP, Brazil
3
Faculdade de Formação de Professores, University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 24435-005, RJ, Brazil
4
Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins from Animal Venoms, Research and Development Center, Ezequiel Dias Foundation, Belo Horizonte 30510-010, MG, Brazil
5
Laboratory of Phytopharmaceutical Nanobiotechnology, Department of Biological and Health Sciences, Federal University of Amapá, Macapá 68903-419, AP, Brazil
6
Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-598, RJ, Brazil
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói 24210-346, RJ, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 4 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L. muta venom. All samples were mixed with L. muta venom, then in vivo (hemorrhage and edema) and in vitro (proteolysis, coagulation, and hemolysis) assays were performed. Overall, crude extracts or fractions of Erythroxylum spp. inhibited (20%–100%) toxic effects of the venom, but products achieved an inhibition of 4%–30%. However, when venom was injected into mice before the plant extracts, hemorrhage and edema were not inhibited by the samples. On the other hand, an inhibition of 5%–40% was obtained when extracts or products were given before venom injection. These results indicate that the extracts or products of Erythroxylum spp. could be a promising source of molecules able to treat local toxic effects of envenomation by L. muta venom, aiding in the development of new strategies for antivenom treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lachesis muta; snake venom; Plants; Erythroxylum ovalifolium; Erythroxylum subsessile; Antivenom Lachesis muta; snake venom; Plants; Erythroxylum ovalifolium; Erythroxylum subsessile; Antivenom
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Coriolano de Oliveira, E.; Alves Soares Cruz, R.; de Mello Amorim, N.; Guerra Santos, M.; Carlos Simas Pereira Junior, L.; Flores Sanchez, E.O.; Pinho Fernandes, C.; Garrett, R.; Machado Rocha, L.; Lopes Fuly, A. Protective Effect of the Plant Extracts of Erythroxylum sp. against Toxic Effects Induced by the Venom of Lachesis muta Snake. Molecules 2016, 21, 1350.

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