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Molecules 2016, 21(10), 1292; doi:10.3390/molecules21101292

Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene

1
Division of Funcitonal Food Research, Korea Food Research Institute, 62, Anyangpangyo-ro 1201 beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Korea
2
Division of Strategic Food Research, Korea Food Research Institute, 62, Anyangpangyo-ro 1201 beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13539, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Nancy D. Turner
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB) was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g) and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g) in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g). The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE)/g) of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g). When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL), Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL), and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL) among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes) in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: immature wheat bran; phytochemical composition; antioxidant capacity; cell growth inhibition; tumor suppressor genes; apoptotic cell death immature wheat bran; phytochemical composition; antioxidant capacity; cell growth inhibition; tumor suppressor genes; apoptotic cell death
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Kim, M.J.; Yoon, W.-J.; Kim, S.S. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene. Molecules 2016, 21, 1292.

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