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Molecules 2015, 20(9), 16466-16490; doi:10.3390/molecules200916466

Identification of Cultured and Natural Astragalus Root Based on Monosaccharide Mapping

1
Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, No. 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, China
2
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, No. 92, Wucheng Road, Taiyuan 030006, Shanxi, China
3
Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100050, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 9 August 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 3 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Abstract

As the main substances responsible for immunomodulatory activity, saccharides can be used as quality indicators for Astragalus root (RA). Saccharide content is commonly determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy, which lacks species specificity and has not been applied in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Monosaccharide mapping based on trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) hydrolysis can be used for quantitative analysis of saccharide compositions. In addition, species specificity can be evaluated by analysis of the mapping characteristics. In this study, monosaccharide mapping of soluble saccharides in the cytoplasm and polysaccharides in the cell wall of 24 batches of RA samples with different growth patterns were obtained based on TFA hydrolysis followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the mapping and the molar ratios of saccharide compositions of the cultured and natural RA samples were different for both cytoplasm and cell wall. For example, the molar ratio of mannose and arabinose was more than 3.5:1 in cytoplasm in cultured RA, whereas the ratio was less than 3.5:1 in natural RA. This research not only lays a foundation for screening indicators for RA, but also provided new ways of evaluating the quality of Chinese medicinal materials in which saccharides are the main bioactive substances. View Full-Text
Keywords: Astragalus root; monosaccharide mapping; quality evaluation; cultured RA; natural RA Astragalus root; monosaccharide mapping; quality evaluation; cultured RA; natural RA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, K.; Hao, X.; Gao, F.; Wang, G.; Zhang, Z.; Du, G.; Qin, X. Identification of Cultured and Natural Astragalus Root Based on Monosaccharide Mapping. Molecules 2015, 20, 16466-16490.

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