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Molecules 2015, 20(8), 15359-15373; doi:10.3390/molecules200815359

Phenyllactic Acid from Lactobacillus plantarum PromotesAdipogenic Activity in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte via Up-Regulationof PPAR-γ2

1
Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam 330801, Korea
2
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori-Shi 6808553, Japan
3
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P. O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Biotechnology, PRIST University, Tamilnadu 613403, India
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 21 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3108 KB, uploaded 24 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Synthetic drugs are commonly used to cure various human ailments at present. However, the uses of synthetic drugs are strictly regulated because of their adverse effects. Thus, naturally occurring molecules may be more suitable for curing disease without unfavorable effects. Therefore, we investigated phenyllactic acid (PLA) from Lactobacillus plantarum with respect to its effects on adipogenic genes and their protein expression in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes by qPCR and western blot techniques. PLA enhanced differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells at the concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 μM. Maximum differentiation and lipid accumulation were observed at a concentration of 100 μM of PLA, as compared with control adipocytes (p < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of PPAR-γ2, C/EBP‑α, adiponectin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), and SREBP-1 were increased by PLA treatment as compared with control adipocytes (p < 0.05). PLA stimulates PPAR-γ mRNA expression in a concentration dependent manner, but this expression was lesser than agonist (2.83 ± 0.014 fold) of PPAR-γ2. Moreover, PLA supplementation enhances glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes (11.81 ± 0.17 mM) compared to control adipocytes, but this glucose uptake was lesser than that induced by troglitazone (13.75 ± 0.95 mM) and insulin treatment (15.49 ± 0.20 mM). Hence, we conclude that PLA treatment enhances adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake via activation of PPAR-γ2, and PLA may thus be the potential candidate for preventing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). View Full-Text
Keywords: phenyllactic acid; 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte; adipocyte differentiation; troglitazone; PPAR-γ antagonist; glucose uptake; type-2 diabetes phenyllactic acid; 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte; adipocyte differentiation; troglitazone; PPAR-γ antagonist; glucose uptake; type-2 diabetes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilavenil, S.; Kim, D.H.; Valan Arasu, M.; Srigopalram, S.; Sivanesan, R.; Choi, K.C. Phenyllactic Acid from Lactobacillus plantarum PromotesAdipogenic Activity in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte via Up-Regulationof PPAR-γ2. Molecules 2015, 20, 15359-15373.

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