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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12787-12803; doi:10.3390/molecules200712787

Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities

1
Research Center for Biodiversity, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Isabel Ferreira
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 13 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

Rhododendron formosanum is an endemic species distributed in the central mountains of Taiwan. In this study, the biological activities of major procyanidins isolated from the leaf extract of R. formosanum were investigated. Four compounds, including two procyanidin dimers, procyanidin A1 (1) and B3 (2), and two procyanidin trimmers, procyanidin C4 (4) and cinnamtannin D1 (5), were isolated and identified on the basis of spectroscopic data. The structure of a new procyanidin dimer, rhodonidin A (3), was elucidated by 2D-NMR, CD spectrum and MS. The procyanidin trimmers and rhodonidin A are reported for the first time in Ericaceae. The biological activities of these procyanidins were evaluated using anti-bacterial and anti-oxidative assays. Only the new compound 3 demonstrated strong anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at an MIC value of 4 μg/mL. All compounds showed pronounced antioxidant activities and the activities are enhanced as the amount of OH groups in procyanidins increased. In conclusion, the pleiotropic effects of procyanidins isolated from the leaves of R. formosanum can be a source of promising compounds for the development of future pharmacological applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: procyanidin A1; procyanidin B3; rhodonidin A; procyanidin C4; cinnamtannin D1; anti-bacterial; antioxidant procyanidin A1; procyanidin B3; rhodonidin A; procyanidin C4; cinnamtannin D1; anti-bacterial; antioxidant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.-M.; Hsu, Y.-M.; Jhan, Y.-L.; Tsai, S.-J.; Lin, S.-X.; Su, C.-H.; Chou, C.-H. Structure Elucidation of Procyanidins Isolated from Rhododendron formosanum and Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Bacterial Activities. Molecules 2015, 20, 12787-12803.

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