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Molecules 2015, 20(7), 12314-12327; doi:10.3390/molecules200712314

Calophyllolide Content in Calophyllum inophyllum at Different Stages of Maturity and Its Osteogenic Activity

1
Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Beitou Dist., Taipei 11221, Taiwan
2
National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, No. 155-1, Li-Nong St., Sec. 2, Beitou Dist., Taipei 11221, Taiwan
3
Department of Biotechnology, HungKuang University, No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City 43302, Taiwan
4
Department of Nursing, HungKuang University, No. 1018, Sec. 6, Taiwan Boulevard, Shalu District, Taichung City 43302, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 17 April 2015 / Revised: 26 June 2015 / Accepted: 1 July 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1302 KB, uploaded 7 July 2015]   |  

Abstract

Calophyllum inophyllum is a coastal plant rich in natural substances. Its ingredients have been used for the development of an anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug. In this study, we collected C. inophyllum fruit, and the ethanol extract of the fruit was chromatographically separated using silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns to obtain the major compound, calophyllolide. The fruits were harvested from September to December in 2011; a quantitative analysis of the calophyllolide content was conducted using HPLC to explore the differences between the different parts of the fruit during the growing season. The results showed that in fruits of C. inophyllum, calophyllolide exists only in the nuts, and dried nuts contain approximately 2 mg·g1 of calophyllolide. The calophyllolide levels in the nuts decreased during maturity. In addition, calophyllolide dose-dependently enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, without significant cytotoxicity. The expression of osteoblastic genes, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), were increased by calophyllolide. Calophyllolide induced osteoblasts differentiation also evidenced by increasing mineralization and ALP staining. View Full-Text
Keywords: Calophyllum inophyllum; calophyllolide; osteoblast Calophyllum inophyllum; calophyllolide; osteoblast
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, W.-H.; Liu, Y.-W.; Chen, Z.-F.; Chiou, W.-F.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-C. Calophyllolide Content in Calophyllum inophyllum at Different Stages of Maturity and Its Osteogenic Activity. Molecules 2015, 20, 12314-12327.

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