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Molecules 2015, 20(5), 9344-9357; doi:10.3390/molecules20059344

Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells

1
Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli 17, Novara 28100, Italy
2
Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), via Giusti 9, Florence 50121, Italy
3
Laboratory of Biomedical and Dental Materials, Department of Health Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli 17, Novara 28100, Italy
4
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Kaslik B. P. 446, Jounieh, Lebanon
5
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, via Celoria, Milan 20133, Italy
6
Laboratory of Cellular Physiology, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Piemonte Orientale, via Solaroli 17, Novara 28100, Italy
7
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Milan State University, via Beldiletto 1, Milan 20142, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 11 May 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
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Abstract

Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral health; dental caries; periodontitis; antibiotic resistance; α-pinene; Streptococcus mutans; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans oral health; dental caries; periodontitis; antibiotic resistance; α-pinene; Streptococcus mutans; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Azzimonti, B.; Cochis, A.; Beyrouthy, M.E.; Iriti, M.; Uberti, F.; Sorrentino, R.; Landini, M.M.; Rimondini, L.; Varoni, E.M. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells. Molecules 2015, 20, 9344-9357.

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