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Molecules 2015, 20(5), 7845-7873; doi:10.3390/molecules20057845

Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

1
CSIRO Agriculture Flagship, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
2
School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, Waite Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, Australia
Present address: South Australian Research and Development Institute, GPO Box 397, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia
Present address: Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Helene Hopfer and Susan E. Ebeler
Received: 22 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 23 April 2015 / Published: 29 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [902 KB, uploaded 5 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study. View Full-Text
Keywords: grape; wine; ester; amino acid; CoA; yeast; fermentation grape; wine; ester; amino acid; CoA; yeast; fermentation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Boss, P.K.; Pearce, A.D.; Zhao, Y.; Nicholson, E.L.; Dennis, E.G.; Jeffery, D.W. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine. Molecules 2015, 20, 7845-7873.

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