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Molecules 2015, 20(3), 5239-5259; doi:10.3390/molecules20035239

Bacillus toyonensis Strain AEMREG6, a Bacterium Isolated from South African Marine Environment Sediment Samples Produces a Glycoprotein Bioflocculant

1
SA-MRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 26 February 2015 / Revised: 15 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 23 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

A bioflocculant-producing bacteria, isolated from sediment samples of a marine environment in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa demonstrated a flocculating activity above 60% for kaolin clay suspension. Analysis of the 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) nucleotide sequence of the isolate in the GenBank database showed 99% similarity to Bacillus toyonensis strain BCT-7112 and it was deposited in the GenBank as Bacillus toyonensis strain AEMREG6 with accession number KP406731. The bacteria produced a bioflocculant (REG-6) optimally in the presence of glucose and NH4NO3 as the sole carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, initial medium pH of 5 and Ca2+ as the cation of choice. Chemical analysis showed that purified REG-6 was a glycoprotein mainly composed of polysaccharide (77.8%) and protein (11.5%). It was thermally stable and had strong flocculating activity against kaolin suspension over a wide range of pH values (3–11) with a relatively low dosage requirement of 0.1 mg/mL in the presence of Mn2+. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amide groups preferred for flocculation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that bridging was the main flocculation mechanism of REG-6. The outstanding flocculating performance of REG-6 holds great potential to replace the hazardous chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine environment; Bacillus toyonensis strain AEMREG6; REG-6; flocculating activity; glycoprotein; thermostable marine environment; Bacillus toyonensis strain AEMREG6; REG-6; flocculating activity; glycoprotein; thermostable
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okaiyeto, K.; Nwodo, U.U.; Mabinya, L.V.; Okoh, A.I. Bacillus toyonensis Strain AEMREG6, a Bacterium Isolated from South African Marine Environment Sediment Samples Produces a Glycoprotein Bioflocculant. Molecules 2015, 20, 5239-5259.

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