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Molecules 2015, 20(3), 4088-4108; doi:10.3390/molecules20034088

Untargeted NMR-Based Methodology in the Study of Fruit Metabolites

Magnetic Resonance Laboratory "Annalaura Segre", Institute of Chemical Methodologies, National Research Council (CNR), I-00015 Monterotondo (RM), Italy
Department of Drug Chemistry and Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy
Department of Pharmacy, "G. D'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti Scalo (CH), Italy
Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, Pavia University, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 17 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1106 KB, uploaded 4 March 2015]   |  


In this review, fundamental aspects of the untargeted NMR-based methodology applied to fruit characterization are described. The strategy to perform the structure elucidation of fruit metabolites is discussed with some examples of spectral assignments by 2D experiments. Primary ubiquitous metabolites as well as secondary species-specific metabolites, identified in different fruits using an untargeted 1H-NMR approach, are summarized in a comprehensive way. Crucial aspects regarding the quantitative elaboration of spectral data are also discussed. The usefulness of the NMR-based metabolic profiling was highlighted using some results regarding quality, adulteration, varieties and geographical origin of fruits and fruit-derived products such as juices. View Full-Text
Keywords: NMR; fruits; metabolomics; primary metabolites; secondary metabolites NMR; fruits; metabolomics; primary metabolites; secondary metabolites

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sobolev, A.P.; Mannina, L.; Proietti, N.; Carradori, S.; Daglia, M.; Giusti, A.M.; Antiochia, R.; Capitani, D. Untargeted NMR-Based Methodology in the Study of Fruit Metabolites. Molecules 2015, 20, 4088-4108.

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