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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 3389-3405; doi:10.3390/molecules20023389

Investigation of Chemomarkers of Astragali Radix of Different Ages and Geographical Origin by NMR Profiling

1
Shanghai Haini Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group, Shanghai 201318, China
2
Natural Products Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, Leiden 2333 BE, The Netherlands
3
Sino-Dutch Centre for preventive and Personalized Medicine, Zernikedreef 9, Leiden 2333 CK, The Netherlands
4
Plant Ecology and Phytochemistry, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Sylviusweg 72, Leiden 2333 BE, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fernando Albericio
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 24 December 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2015 / Published: 17 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1837 KB, uploaded 17 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Astragalus roots from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge or Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus (Bunge) Hsiao are among the most popular traditional medicinal plants due to their diverse therapeutic uses based on their tonic, antinephritic, immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, diuretic, antidiabetic, analgesic, expectorant and sedative properties. Currently, the herb is produced or cultivated in various sites, including 10 different locations in China with very diverse environmental conditions. These differences affect their metabolic pools and consequently their medicinal properties. The comparative metabolic profiling of plants of different geographical origins or ages could contribute to detect biomarkers for their quality control and thus guarantee the efficacy of the herbal medicines produced with this drug. In this paper nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolomics was applied for to plants of different origins and age for this purpose. The results of this study show that in the set of samples evaluated, age is more discriminating than geographical location. The quantity of individual flavonoids and some primary metabolites contributed most to this age differentiation. On the other hand, based on the analysis of orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) modeling, the marker metabolites for the geographical origin were saponins and isoflavonoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: Astragalus membranaceus; metabolomics; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; saponins; isoflavonoids Astragalus membranaceus; metabolomics; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; saponins; isoflavonoids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, L.; Wang, M.; Ibarra-Estrada, E.; Wu, C.; Wilson, E.G.; Verpoorte, R.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Choi, Y.H. Investigation of Chemomarkers of Astragali Radix of Different Ages and Geographical Origin by NMR Profiling. Molecules 2015, 20, 3389-3405.

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