Diversity of Heparan Sulfate and HSV Entry: Basic Understanding and Treatment Strategies
AbstractA modified form of heparan sulfate (HS) known as 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) generates fusion receptor for herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry and spread. Primary cultures of corneal fibroblasts derived from human eye donors have shown the clinical significance of this receptor during HSV corneal infection. 3-OS HS- is a product of a rare enzymatic modification at C3 position of glucosamine residue which is catalyzed by 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OSTs) enzymes. From humans to zebrafish, the 3-OST enzymes are highly conserved and widely expressed in cells and tissues. There are multiple forms of 3-OSTs each producing unique subset of sulfated HS making it chemically diverse and heterogeneous. HSV infection of cells or zebrafish can be used as a unique tool to understand the structural-functional activities of HS and 3-OS HS and likewise, the infection can be used as a functional assay to screen phage display libraries for identifying HS and 3-OS HS binding peptides or small molecule inhibitors. Using this approach over 200 unique 12-mer HS and 3-OS HS recognizing peptides were isolated and characterized against HSV corneal infection where 3-OS HS is known to be a key receptor. In this review we discuss emerging role of 3-OS HS based therapeutic strategies in preventing viral infection and tissue damage. View Full-Text
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Tiwari, V.; Tarbutton, M.S.; Shukla, D. Diversity of Heparan Sulfate and HSV Entry: Basic Understanding and Treatment Strategies. Molecules 2015, 20, 2707-2727.
Tiwari V, Tarbutton MS, Shukla D. Diversity of Heparan Sulfate and HSV Entry: Basic Understanding and Treatment Strategies. Molecules. 2015; 20(2):2707-2727.Chicago/Turabian Style
Tiwari, Vaibhav; Tarbutton, Morgan S.; Shukla, Deepak. 2015. "Diversity of Heparan Sulfate and HSV Entry: Basic Understanding and Treatment Strategies." Molecules 20, no. 2: 2707-2727.