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Molecules 2015, 20(2), 2693-2706; doi:10.3390/molecules20022693

Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells via Caspase Activation and Regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 Gene Expression

1
Research Center for Animal Development Applied Biology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad 917568, Iran
2
Department of Biology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad 917568, Iran
3
Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
4
Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran 14911, Iran
5
Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 18 October 2014 / Revised: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 December 2014 / Published: 5 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Synthesis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [996 KB, uploaded 5 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), the most popular nanoparticles, possess unique properties. Achillea biebersteinii is a plant of the Asteraceae family rich in active antitumor components. The aim of this research was the characterization and investigation of the cytotoxic properties of Ag-NPs synthesized using A. biebersteinii flower extract, on a human breast cancer cell line. The Ag-NPs were synthesized after approximately 180 min of reaction at 40 °C, then they were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The anti-apoptosis effect of Ag-NPs on the MCF-7 cell line was investigated by MTT assay, DAPI and acridine orange staining and caspase activity. The transcriptional expression of bax, bcl-2, caspase-3, -8 and -9 were also evaluated by RT-PCR. The TEM images revealed that the Ag-NPs morphology had a different shape. The DLS indicated that the average hydrodynamic diameter of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs was around 12 nm. By UV-visible spectroscopy the strongest absorbance peak was observed at 460 nm. The FTIR results also showed interaction between the plant extract and Ag-NPs due to the similarity in the peak patterns. The EDS results showed that Ag-NPs display an absorption peak at 3 keV, indicating the presence of the element silver. The Ag-NPs caused a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, fragmentation in nucleic acid, inhibited the proliferation and induction of apoptosis on MCF-7 by suppressing specific cell cycle genes, and simulation programmed cell dead genes. Further investigation is required to establish the potential of this novel and promising approach in cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Achillea biebersteinii; apoptosis; cancer; green biosynthesis; nano-silver Achillea biebersteinii; apoptosis; cancer; green biosynthesis; nano-silver
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baharara, J.; Namvar, F.; Ramezani, T.; Mousavi, M.; Mohamad, R. Silver Nanoparticles Biosynthesized Using Achillea biebersteinii Flower Extract: Apoptosis Induction in MCF-7 Cells via Caspase Activation and Regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 Gene Expression. Molecules 2015, 20, 2693-2706.

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