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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 22703-22717; doi:10.3390/molecules201219875

Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts

1
Department of Chemistry at the University of Costa Rica (UCR), Sede Rodrigo Facio, San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José 2060, Costa Rica
2
Department of Food Biotechnology and Microbiology, Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL), CSIC-UAM, C/Nicolás Cabrera 9, Madrid 28049, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Cisneros-Zevallos and Daniel Jacobo-Velazquez
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Plant Phenolics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2451 KB, uploaded 18 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and 13C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225–494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40–167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest. View Full-Text
Keywords: Uncaria tomentosa L.; alkaloids; UPLC; TQ-ESI/MS; flavonoids; 13C-NMR; proanthocyanidins; propelargonidins; alkaloids Uncaria tomentosa L.; alkaloids; UPLC; TQ-ESI/MS; flavonoids; 13C-NMR; proanthocyanidins; propelargonidins; alkaloids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro Hoyos, M.; Sánchez-Patán, F.; Murillo Masis, R.; Martín-Álvarez, P.J.; Zamora Ramirez, W.; Monagas, M.J.; Bartolomé, B. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat’s Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts. Molecules 2015, 20, 22703-22717.

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