Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D–A–D Modular Chromophore
AbstractThrough the incorporation of a thiophene functionality, a novel solution-processable small organic chromophore was designed, synthesized and characterized for application in bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The new chromophore, (2Z,2′Z)-2,2′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile) (coded as AS2), was based on a donor–acceptor–donor (D–A–D) module where a simple triphenylamine unit served as an electron donor, 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile as an electron acceptor, and a thiophene ring as the π-bridge embedded between the donor and acceptor functionalities. AS2 was isolated as brick-red, needle-shaped crystals, and was fully characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR, IR, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of AS2 were compared with those of a structural analogue, (2Z,2′Z)-2,2′-(1,4-phenylene)bis(3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-acrylonitrile) (AS1). Benefiting from the covalent thiophene bridges, compared to AS1 thin solid film, the AS2 film showed: (1) an enhancement of light-harvesting ability by 20%; (2) an increase in wavelength of the longest wavelength absorption maximum (497 nm vs. 470 nm) and (3) a narrower optical band-gap (1.93 eV vs. 2.17 eV). Studies on the photovoltaic properties revealed that the best AS2-[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)-based device showed an impressive enhanced power conversion efficiency of 4.10%, an approx. 3-fold increase with respect to the efficiency of the best AS1-based device (1.23%). These results clearly indicated that embodiment of thiophene functionality extended the molecular conjugation, thus enhancing the light-harvesting ability and short-circuit current density, while further improving the bulk-heterojunction device performance. To our knowledge, AS2 is the first example in the literature where a thiophene unit has been used in conjunction with a 1,4-phenylenediacetonitrile accepting functionality to extend the π-conjugation in a given D–A–D motif for bulk-heterojunction solar cell applications. View Full-Text
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Raynor, A.M.; Gupta, A.; Plummer, C.M.; Jackson, S.L.; Bilic, A.; Patil, H.; Sonar, P.; Bhosale, S.V. Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D–A–D Modular Chromophore. Molecules 2015, 20, 21787-21801.
Raynor AM, Gupta A, Plummer CM, Jackson SL, Bilic A, Patil H, Sonar P, Bhosale SV. Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D–A–D Modular Chromophore. Molecules. 2015; 20(12):21787-21801.Chicago/Turabian Style
Raynor, Aaron M.; Gupta, Akhil; Plummer, Christopher M.; Jackson, Sam L.; Bilic, Ante; Patil, Hemlata; Sonar, Prashant; Bhosale, Sheshanath V. 2015. "Significant Improvement of Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Properties by Incorporating Thiophene in a Solution-Processable D–A–D Modular Chromophore." Molecules 20, no. 12: 21787-21801.