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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21597-21608; doi:10.3390/molecules201219790

Simultaneous Determination of Eight Ginsenosides in Rat Plasma by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to Their Pharmacokinetics

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Department of Natural Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University, No. 38, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5614 KB, uploaded 3 December 2015]   |  


A high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was successfully developed and validated for the identification and determination of eight ginsenosides: ginsenoside Rg1 (1); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1 (2); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg2 (3); 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh1 (4); 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg2 (5); ginsenoside Rd (6); 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (7); and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (8) in rat plasma. The established rapid method had high linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The method has been used successfully to study the pharmacokinetics of abovementioned eight ginsenosides for the first time. After an oral administration of total saponins in the stems-leaves of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (GTSSL) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, the ginsenosides 6, 7, and 8, belonging to protopanaxadiol-type saponins, exhibited relatively long tmax values, suggesting that they were slowly absorbed, while the ginsenosides 15, belonging to protopanaxatriol-type saponins, had different tmax values, which should be due to their differences in the substituted groups. Compounds 2 and 4, 3 and 5, 7 and 8 were three pairs of R/S epimerics at C-20, which was interesting that the t1/2 of 20(S)-epimers were always longer than those of 20(R)-epimers. This pharmacokinetic identification of multiple ginsenosides of GTSSL in rat plasma provides a significant basis for better understanding the clinical application of GTSSL. View Full-Text
Keywords: stems-leaves of Panax ginseng; ginsenoside; pharmacokinetics; LC-ESI-MS/MS stems-leaves of Panax ginseng; ginsenoside; pharmacokinetics; LC-ESI-MS/MS

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, L.-Y.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Zhou, Q.-L.; Yang, Y.-F.; Yang, X.-W. Simultaneous Determination of Eight Ginsenosides in Rat Plasma by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Application to Their Pharmacokinetics. Molecules 2015, 20, 21597-21608.

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