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Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21254-21273; doi:10.3390/molecules201219759

Factors Influencing Oral Bioavailability of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract and Its Key Phenolic Principles

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447 Sri-Ayuthaya Road, Rajathevi, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Houston, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jean Jacques Vanden Eynde
Received: 16 October 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3943 KB, uploaded 30 November 2015]   |  


Mango seed kernel extract (MSKE) and its key components (gallic acid, GA; methyl gallate, MG; and pentagalloyl glucopyranose, PGG) have generated interest because of their pharmacological activities. To develop the potential use of the key components in MSKE as natural therapeutic agents, their pharmacokinetic data are necessary. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the factors affecting their oral bioavailability as pure compounds and as components in MSKE. The in vitro chemical stability, biological stability, and absorption were evaluated in Hanks’ Balanced Salt Solution, Caco-2 cell and rat fecal lysates, and the Caco-2 cell model, respectively. The in vivo oral pharmacokinetic behavior was elucidated in Sprague-Dawley rats. The key components were unstable under alkaline conditions and in Caco-2 cell lysates or rat fecal lysates. The absorptive permeability coefficient followed the order MG > GA > PGG. The in vivo results exhibited similar pharmacokinetic trends to the in vitro studies. Additionally, the co-components in MSKE may affect the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the key components in MSKE. In conclusion, chemical degradation under alkaline conditions, biological degradation by intestinal cell and colonic microflora enzymes, and low absorptive permeability could be important factors underlying the oral bioavailability of these polyphenols. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mangifera indica L.; pentagalloyl glucopyranose; pharmacokinetic; Caco-2 cells; fecal lysate Mangifera indica L.; pentagalloyl glucopyranose; pharmacokinetic; Caco-2 cells; fecal lysate

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiamboonsri, P.; Pithayanukul, P.; Bavovada, R.; Leanpolchareanchai, J.; Yin, T.; Gao, S.; Hu, M. Factors Influencing Oral Bioavailability of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract and Its Key Phenolic Principles. Molecules 2015, 20, 21254-21273.

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