Next Article in Journal
Improved Antioxidant Capacity of Optimization of a Self-Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System for Resveratrol
Previous Article in Journal
Antioxidant Phytochemicals for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2015, 20(12), 21157-21166; doi:10.3390/molecules201219752

Apigenin Attenuates Melanoma Cell Migration by Inducing Anoikis through Integrin and Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition

Department of Life Sciences, College of Biomedical & Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1267 KB, uploaded 27 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and is therefore particularly relevant for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for cancers. In this study, time- and dose-dependent cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed to determine the effects of apigenin on A2058 and A375 melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were pretreated with different concentrations of apigenin and analyzed for morphological changes, anoikis induction, cell migration, and levels of proteins associated with apoptosis. Apigenin reduced integrin protein levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), which induce anoikis in human cutaneous melanoma cells. Apigenin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell migration, unlike untreated controls. Furthermore, apigenin treatment increased apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the metastasis of melanoma cells. Our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which apigenin prevents melanoma metastasis by sensitizing anoikis induced by the loss of integrin proteins in the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings elucidate the related mechanisms and suggest the potential of apigenin in developing clinical treatment strategies against malignant melanoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: apigenin; melanoma; anoikis; migration; integrin-FAK signaling apigenin; melanoma; anoikis; migration; integrin-FAK signaling
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hasnat, M.A.; Pervin, M.; Lim, J.H.; Lim, B.O. Apigenin Attenuates Melanoma Cell Migration by Inducing Anoikis through Integrin and Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition. Molecules 2015, 20, 21157-21166.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]

Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top