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Molecules 2015, 20(11), 20230-20239; doi:10.3390/molecules201119691

Auraptene Acts as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent in the Mouse Brain

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, 4-2 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pascal Richomme
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 24 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarins, Xanthones and Related Compounds)
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Abstract

The anti-inflammatory activity of auraptene (AUR), a citrus coumarin, in peripheral tissues is well-known, and we previously demonstrated that AUR exerts anti-inflammatory effects in the ischemic brain; the treatment of mice with AUR for eight days immediately after ischemic surgery suppressed demise and neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects in the brain. We suggested that these effects were at least partly mediated by the suppression of inflammatory mediators derived from astrocytes. The present study showed that (1) AUR, as a pretreatment for five days before and another three days after ischemic surgery, suppressed microglial activation, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in astrocytes, and COX-2 mRNA expression in the hippocampus; (2) AUR suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of COX-2 mRNA and the mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultured astrocytes; (3) AUR was still detectable in the brain 60 min after its intraperitoneal administration. These results support our previous suggestion that AUR directly exerts anti-inflammatory effects on the brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: auraptene; cerebral ischemia; hippocampus; anti-inflammation; astrocytes; cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2 auraptene; cerebral ischemia; hippocampus; anti-inflammation; astrocytes; cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okuyama, S.; Morita, M.; Kaji, M.; Amakura, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Shimamoto, K.; Ookido, Y.; Nakajima, M.; Furukawa, Y. Auraptene Acts as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent in the Mouse Brain. Molecules 2015, 20, 20230-20239.

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