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Open AccessCommunication
Molecules 2015, 20(1), 384-395; doi:10.3390/molecules20010384

Characterization of Ambrette Seed Oil and Its Mode of Action in Bacteria

1
Institute of Green Bio Science & Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang-daero 232916, Korea
2
Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chunbuk 361763, Korea
3
Department of Biotechnology, Vel Tech High Tech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College (Anna University), Chennai 600062, India
4
Pondicherry Centre for Biological Sciences, Pondicherry 605005, India
5
Department of Chemistry, Vel Tech High Tech Dr.Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College (Anna University), Chennai 600062, India
6
Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441706, Korea
7
Centre for Environment Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai 600034, India
8
Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang 232916, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nancy D. Turner
Received: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1504 KB, uploaded 29 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

In the present study, chemical composition and the antibacterial mechanism of ambrette seed oil are investigated. Chemical composition of the oil was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty-five compounds were identified and the major compounds were found to be farnesol acetate (51.45%) and ambrettolide (12.96%). The antibacterial activity was performed by well diffusion assay and the mechanisms were studied by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protein leakage assays. The antibacterial effect of the ambrette seed oil showed inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The LDH activity was high in all tested bacteria compared with control, whereas the ALP and protein concentrations were also increased in E. faecalis. Molecular docking revealed the ligands farnesol acetate and ambrettolide had satisfactory binding energy towards the beta lactamase TEM-72 and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) protein. Due to its better antibacterial properties, the ambrette seed oil could be used as a source of antibacterial agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: ambrette seed oil; antibacterial activity; chemical composition; docking; DHFR ambrette seed oil; antibacterial activity; chemical composition; docking; DHFR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Arokiyaraj, S.; Choi, S.H.; Lee, Y.; Bharanidharan, R.; Hairul-Islam, V.I.; Vijayakumar, B.; Oh, Y.K.; Dinesh-Kumar, V.; Vincent, S.; Kim, K.H. Characterization of Ambrette Seed Oil and Its Mode of Action in Bacteria. Molecules 2015, 20, 384-395.

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