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Molecules 2014, 19(9), 14139-14194; doi:10.3390/molecules190914139

Inorganic Materials as Supports for Covalent Enzyme Immobilization: Methods and Mechanisms

1
Consorzio UNO, Consortium University of Oristano, Oristano 09170, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università di Cagliari, Monserrato 09042, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2014 / Revised: 9 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 9 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)

Abstract

Several inorganic materials are potentially suitable for enzymatic covalent immobilization, by means of several different techniques. Such materials must meet stringent criteria to be suitable as solid matrices: complete insolubility in water, reasonable mechanical strength and chemical resistance under the operational conditions, the capability to form manageable particles with high surface area, reactivity towards derivatizing/functionalizing agents. Non-specific protein adsorption should be always considered when planning covalent immobilization on inorganic solids. A huge mass of experimental work has shown that silica, silicates, borosilicates and aluminosilicates, alumina, titania, and other oxides, are the materials of choice when attempting enzyme immobilizations on inorganic supports. More recently, some forms of elemental carbon, silicon, and certain metals have been also proposed for certain applications. With regard to the derivatization/functionalization techniques, the use of organosilanes through silanization is undoubtedly the most studied and the most applied, although inorganic bridge formation and acylation with selected acyl halides have been deeply studied. In the present article, the most common inorganic supports for covalent immobilization of the enzymes are reviewed, with particular focus on their advantages and disadvantages in terms of enzyme loadings, operational stability, undesired adsorption, and costs. Mechanisms and methods for covalent immobilization are also discussed, focusing on the most widespread activating approaches (such as glutaraldehyde, cyanogen bromide, divinylsulfone, carbodiimides, carbonyldiimidazole, sulfonyl chlorides, chlorocarbonates, N-hydroxysuccinimides). View Full-Text
Keywords: enzymes; immobilization; stabilization; covalent binding; inorganic; silica; mesoporous; functionalization; grafting; activation enzymes; immobilization; stabilization; covalent binding; inorganic; silica; mesoporous; functionalization; grafting; activation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Zucca, P.; Sanjust, E. Inorganic Materials as Supports for Covalent Enzyme Immobilization: Methods and Mechanisms. Molecules 2014, 19, 14139-14194.

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