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Molecules 2014, 19(8), 10982-10997; doi:10.3390/molecules190810982

The Validation of an Analytical Method for Sulfentrazone Residue Determination in Soil Using Liquid Chromatography and a Comparison of Chromatographic Sensitivity to Millet as a Bioindicator Species

Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo, UFES, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km 60, São Mateus, ES 29932-540, Brazil
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Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Abstract

Commonly used herbicides, such as sulfentrazone, pose the risk of soil contamination due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Phytoremediation by green manure species has been tested using biomarkers, but analytical data are now required to confirm the extraction of sulfentrazone from soil. Thus, the present work was carried out to analyze sulfentrazone residues in soil based on liquid chromatography with a comparison of these values to the sensitivity of the bioindicator Pennisetum glaucum. The soil samples were obtained after cultivation of Crotalaria juncea and Canavalia ensiformis at four seeding densities and with three doses of sulfentrazone. The seedlings were collected into pots, at two different depths, after 75 days of phytoremediator sowing and then were used to determine the herbicide persistence in the soil. A bioassay with P. glaucum was carried out in the same pot. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using UV-diode array detection (HPLC/UV-DAD), was used to determine the herbicide residues. The HPLC determination was optimized and validated according to the parameters of precision, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection and quantification, robustness and specificity. The bioindicator P. glaucum was more sensitive to sulfentrazone than residue determination by HPLC. Changes in sulfentrazone concentration caused by green manure phytoremediation were accurately identified by the bioindicator. However, a true correlation between the size of the species and the analyte content was not identified. View Full-Text
Keywords: herbicide; HPLC; Canavalia ensiformis; Crotalaria juncea; Pennisetum glaucum; bioindicator herbicide; HPLC; Canavalia ensiformis; Crotalaria juncea; Pennisetum glaucum; bioindicator
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Oliveira, M.A.; Pires, F.R.; Ferraço, M.; Belo, A.F. The Validation of an Analytical Method for Sulfentrazone Residue Determination in Soil Using Liquid Chromatography and a Comparison of Chromatographic Sensitivity to Millet as a Bioindicator Species. Molecules 2014, 19, 10982-10997.

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