Next Article in Journal
Quantification of the Resveratrol Analogs trans-2,3-Dimethoxy-stilbene and trans-3,4-Dimethoxystilbene in Rat Plasma: Application to Pre-Clinical Pharmacokinetic Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Additives Enhancing the Catalytic Properties of Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Immobilized on Mixed-Function-Grafted Mesoporous Silica Gel
Previous Article in Journal
Formation of a Flavin-Linked Peptide
Previous Article in Special Issue
Immobilization as a Strategy for Improving Enzyme Properties-Application to Oxidoreductases
Molecules 2014, 19(7), 9562-9576; doi:10.3390/molecules19079562

Combined Effects of Ultrasound and Immobilization Protocol on Butyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by CALB

2,*  and 1,*
1 Biotechnology, Bioprocess and Biocatalysis Group, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul State, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, P.O. Box 15090, Porto Alegre ZC 91501-970, RS, Brazil 2 Department of Biocatalysis, ICP-CSIC. Campus UAM-CSIC. Cantoblanco, ZC 28049, Madrid, Spain 3 Escuela de Química, Grupo de Investigación en Bioquímica y Microbiología (GIBIM), Edificio Camilo Torres 210, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, 680001, Colombia These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [457 KB, uploaded 7 July 2014]   |   Browse Figures


It is well established that the performance of lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) as catalyst for esterification reactions may be improved by the use of ultrasound technology or by its immobilization on styrene-divinylbenzene beads (MCI-CALB). The present research evaluated the synthesis of butyl acetate using MCI-CALB under ultrasonic energy, comparing the results against those obtained using the commercial preparation, Novozym 435. The optimal conditions were determined using response surface methodology (RSM) evaluating the following parameters: reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, amount of biocatalyst, and added water. The optimal conditions for butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by MCI-CALB were: temperature, 48.8 °C; substrate molar ratio, 3.46:1 alcohol:acid; amount of biocatalyst, 7.5%; and added water 0.28%, both as substrate mass. Under these conditions, 90% of conversion was reached in 1.5 h. In terms of operational stability, MCI-CALB was reused in seven cycles while keeping 70% of its initial activity under ultrasonic energy. The support pore size and resistance are key points for the enzyme activity and stability under mechanical stirring. The use of ultrasound improved both activity and stability because of better homogeneity and reduced mechanical stress to the immobilized system.
Keywords: esterification; lipase; ultrasound; enzyme reuse; enzyme stability; butyl acetate esterification; lipase; ultrasound; enzyme reuse; enzyme stability; butyl acetate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Alves, J.S.; Garcia-Galan, C.; Schein, M.F.; Silva, A.M.; Barbosa, O.; Ayub, M.A.Z.; Fernandez-Lafuente, R.; Rodrigues, R.C. Combined Effects of Ultrasound and Immobilization Protocol on Butyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by CALB. Molecules 2014, 19, 9562-9576.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert