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Molecules 2014, 19(4), 4681-4694; doi:10.3390/molecules19044681
Article

In Vitro Antioxidant Activities, Free Radical Scavenging Capacity, and Tyrosinase Inhibitory of Flavonoid Compounds and Ferulic Acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames

2
, 1
, 3
, 4
 and 1,*
1 Department of Medicinal Botanicals and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan 2 Cheng Ching General Hospital, Taichung 42881, Taiwan 3 Horien International Co., Ltd., Taichung 42881, Taiwan 4 Pemay Biomedical Technology Corp, Taichung 41348, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 3 April 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and other methods of extracting flavonoid compounds and ferulic acid (FA) from S. sinensis were investigated. Five different extraction methods, including water extraction (W), water extraction using UAE (W+U), 75% ethanol extraction (E), 75% ethanol extraction using UAE (E+U), and supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE) were applied in the extraction of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and ferulic acid) in order to compare their efficiency. The highest yield of flavonoids (4.28 mg/g) and ferulic acid (4.13 mg/g) content was detected in the E+U extract. Furthermore, S. sinensis extracts obtained by E+U show high antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of 0.47 mg/mL for DPPH radicals and 0.205 mg/mL for metal chelating activity. The total antioxidant assay shows superoxide radical scavenging capacity and in vitro mushroom tyrosinase inhibition in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that E+U can be used for extraction of bioactive compounds from S. sinensis.
Keywords: Spiranthes sinensis; ultrasound-assisted extraction; ferulic acid; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; tyrosinase Spiranthes sinensis; ultrasound-assisted extraction; ferulic acid; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; tyrosinase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, C.P.; Chang, C.H.; Liang, C.C.; Hung, K.Y.; Hsieh, C.W. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities, Free Radical Scavenging Capacity, and Tyrosinase Inhibitory of Flavonoid Compounds and Ferulic Acid from Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames. Molecules 2014, 19, 4681-4694.

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