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Molecules 2014, 19(3), 3596-3606; doi:10.3390/molecules19033596
Article

Synthesis and Properties of a Lacquer Wax-Based Quarternary Ammonium Gemini Surfactant

1, 1,2,* , 1, 1,2, 3 and 3
Received: 4 November 2013; in revised form: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 24 March 2014
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Abstract: Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant by a three-step reaction. The surface properties of an aqueous solution of the final product were investigated. The optimum conditions were 9% catalyst, 100 °C of reaction temperature and 14 h of reaction time, while the maximum free fatty acids (FFA)% was 99.67%. From the gas chromatography, the main fatty acids of the lacquer wax were palmitic, oleic and octadecanoic acid. The lacquer wax gemini surfactant was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by IR and NMR. The experiments showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is 5 × 10−4 mol·L−1, the surface tension is 33.6 mN·m−1. When the content of surfactant was 0.1%, the separation time of 5 mL water was 10 min.
Keywords: Toxicodendron vernicifluum; lacquer tree; lacquer wax; fatty acids; surfactant; surface property Toxicodendron vernicifluum; lacquer tree; lacquer wax; fatty acids; surfactant; surface property
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, H.; Wang, C.; Ye, J.; Zhou, H.; Lu, L.; Yang, Z. Synthesis and Properties of a Lacquer Wax-Based Quarternary Ammonium Gemini Surfactant. Molecules 2014, 19, 3596-3606.

AMA Style

Chen H, Wang C, Ye J, Zhou H, Lu L, Yang Z. Synthesis and Properties of a Lacquer Wax-Based Quarternary Ammonium Gemini Surfactant. Molecules. 2014; 19(3):3596-3606.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Lu, Li; Yang, Zhibing. 2014. "Synthesis and Properties of a Lacquer Wax-Based Quarternary Ammonium Gemini Surfactant." Molecules 19, no. 3: 3596-3606.


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