Molecules 2014, 19(2), 1912-1938; doi:10.3390/molecules19021912
Review

Tumor-Associated Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Cancer

1,†, 2,†, 3 and 1,* email
1 Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA 2 Department of orthopedics, Daye People's Hospital, Daye, Hubei 435100, China 3 Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2013; in revised form: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue miRNAs as Probes to Monitor Cancer and Neurodegenerative Disorders)
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Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the 17- to 25-nucleotide long noncoding RNAs that modulate the expression of mRNAs and proteins, have emerged as critical players in cancer initiation and progression processes. Deregulation of tissue miRNA expression levels associated with specific genetic alterations has been demonstrated in cancer, where miRNAs function either as oncogenes or as tumor-suppressor genes and are shed from cancer cells into circulation. The present review summarizes and evaluates recent advances in our understanding of the characteristics of tumor tissue miRNAs, circulating miRNAs, and the stability of miRNAs in tissues and their varying expression profiles in circulating tumor cells, and body fluids including blood plasma. These advances in knowledge have led to intense efforts towards discovery and validation of differentially expressing tumor-associated miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of cancer. The development of tumor-specific miRNA signatures as cancer biomarkers detectable in malignant cells and body fluids should help with early detection and more effective therapeutic intervention for individual patients.
Keywords: miRNA; circulating miRNA; body fluid; biomarker; cancer

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Zhang, K.-Y.; Liu, S.-M.; Sen, S. Tumor-Associated Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Cancer. Molecules 2014, 19, 1912-1938.

AMA Style

Wang J, Zhang K-Y, Liu S-M, Sen S. Tumor-Associated Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Cancer. Molecules. 2014; 19(2):1912-1938.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jin; Zhang, Ke-Yong; Liu, Song-Mei; Sen, Subrata. 2014. "Tumor-Associated Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Cancer." Molecules 19, no. 2: 1912-1938.

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