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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 20557-20569; doi:10.3390/molecules191220557

Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases

1
Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrologic, Anesthesiologic and Geriatric Sciences, Policlinico Umberto I, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Sapienza University of Rome, piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome 00185, Italy
2
Department of Sense Organs, Ocular Electrophysiology Center, Policlinico Umberto I, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Sapienza University of Rome, piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome 00185, Italy
3
Department of Biology and Biotechnology Charles Darwin, Sapienza University of Rome, piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome 00185, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2014 / Revised: 2 December 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 8 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

It has been demonstrated that the balance between proteases and protease-inhibitors system plays a key role in maintaining cellular and tissue homeostasis. Indeed, its alteration has been involved in many ocular and systemic diseases. In particular, research has focused on keratoconus, corneal wounds and ulcers, keratitis, endophthalmitis, age-related macular degeneration, Sorsby fundus dystrophy, loss of nerve cells and photoreceptors during optic neuritis both in vivo and in vitro models. Protease-inhibitors have been extensively studied, rather than proteases, because they may represent a therapeutic approach for some ocular diseases. The protease-inhibitors mainly involved in the onset of the above-mentioned ocular pathologies are: α2-macroglobulin, α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP), maspin, SERPINA3K, SERPINB13, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and calpeptin. This review is focused on the several characteristics of dysregulation of this system and, particularly, on a possible role of proteases and protease-inhibitors in molecular remodeling that may lead to some ocular diseases. Recently, researchers have even hypothesized a possible therapeutic effect of the protease-inhibitors in the treatment of injured eye in animal models. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; endophthalmitis; keratitis; keratoconus; neurodegenerative disorders; optic neuritis; protease-inhibitors; retinal ganglion cells; Sorsby dystrophy age-related macular degeneration; endophthalmitis; keratitis; keratoconus; neurodegenerative disorders; optic neuritis; protease-inhibitors; retinal ganglion cells; Sorsby dystrophy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pescosolido, N.; Barbato, A.; Pascarella, A.; Giannotti, R.; Genzano, M.; Nebbioso, M. Role of Protease-Inhibitors in Ocular Diseases. Molecules 2014, 19, 20557-20569.

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