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Molecules 2014, 19(12), 19376-19389; doi:10.3390/molecules191219376

Potential Role of Sulfur-Containing Antioxidant Systems in Highly Oxidative Environments

1
Department of Biochemistry, North West University, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa
2
Department of Biochemistry, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 25 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sulfur Atom: Element for Adaptation to an Oxidative Environment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [253 KB, uploaded 25 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

All forms of life maintain a reducing environment (homeostasis) within their cells. Perturbations in the normal redox state can lead to an oxidative environment which has deleterious effects, especially in health. In biological systems, metabolic activities are dependent mainly on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, a metabolic pathway that uses energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to produce ATP. In the process of oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen in redox reactions and often results to the generation of reactive species. Reactive oxygen species consist of a class of radical and non-radical oxygen derivatives. The imbalance between the reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence systems leads to oxidative burden and hence, damage biological molecules. Antioxidants help to prevent or fix the deleterious effects of reactive species. Sulfur is an important element in biological systems. This atom is usually integrated into proteins as the redox-active cysteine residue and in molecules such as glutathione, thioredoxin and glutaredoxin which are vital antioxidant molecules and are therefore essential for life. This review covers the role of sulfur containing antioxidant systems in oxidative environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfur; antioxidant systems; oxidative environment; reactive oxygen species; glutathione; thioredoxin; glutaredoxin sulfur; antioxidant systems; oxidative environment; reactive oxygen species; glutathione; thioredoxin; glutaredoxin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mukwevho, E.; Ferreira, Z.; Ayeleso, A. Potential Role of Sulfur-Containing Antioxidant Systems in Highly Oxidative Environments. Molecules 2014, 19, 19376-19389.

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