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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 17141-17153; doi:10.3390/molecules191117141

Riboflavin Accumulation and Molecular Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Bifunctional GTP Cyclohydrolase II/3,4-Dihydroxy-2-Butanone 4-Phosphate Synthase, Lumazine Synthase, and Riboflavin Synthase in Different Organs of Lycium chinense Plant

1
Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-Ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
2
Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772, Korea
3
State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
4
Department of Bio-Environmental Chemistry, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea
5
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
6
Visiting Professor Program (VPP), King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 24 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide—essential cofactors for a wide variety of enzymes involving in numerous metabolic processes. In this study, a partial-length cDNA encoding bifunctional GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (LcRIBA), 2 full-length cDNAs encoding lumazine synthase (LcLS1 and LcLS2), and a full-length cDNA encoding riboflavin synthase (LcRS) were isolated from Lycium chinense, an important traditional medicinal plant. Sequence analyses showed that these genes exhibited high identities with their orthologous genes as well as having the same common features related to plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes. LcRIBA, like other plant RIBAs, contained a DHBPS region in its N terminus and a GCHII region in its C-terminal part. LcLSs and LcRS carried an N-terminal extension found in plant riboflavin biosynthetic genes unlike the orthologous microbial genes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 4 riboflavin biosynthetic genes were constitutively expressed in all organs examined of L. chinense plants with the highest expression levels found in the leaves or red fruits. LcRIBA, which catalyzes 2 initial reactions in riboflavin biosynthetic pathway, was the highest transcript in the leaves, and hence, the richest content of riboflavin was detected in this organ. Our study might provide the basis for investigating the contribution of riboflavin in diverse biological activities of L. chinense and may facilitate the metabolic engineering of vitamin B2 in crop plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase; lumazine synthase; riboflavin synthase; Lycium chinense; riboflavin GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase; lumazine synthase; riboflavin synthase; Lycium chinense; riboflavin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tuan, P.A.; Zhao, S.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.B.; Yang, J.; Li, C.H.; Kim, S.-J.; Arasu, M.V.; Al-Dhabi, N.A.; Park, S.U. Riboflavin Accumulation and Molecular Characterization of cDNAs Encoding Bifunctional GTP Cyclohydrolase II/3,4-Dihydroxy-2-Butanone 4-Phosphate Synthase, Lumazine Synthase, and Riboflavin Synthase in Different Organs of Lycium chinense Plant. Molecules 2014, 19, 17141-17153.

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