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Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin
Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia 25123, Italy
Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology—National Research Council, Milano 20133, Italy
Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health (DIVET), Milano 20133, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2013; in revised form: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 22 August 2013
Abstract: Vitamin D is the collective name for a group of closely related lipids, whose main biological function is to maintain serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations within the normal range by enhancing the efficiency of the small intestine to absorb these minerals from the diet. We used a commercially available ELISA method for the determination of vitamin D in bovine milk. Individual milk samples from two different Italian Friesian herds were analysed. The enzyme immunoassay method used was confirmed as a useful tool to measure the vitamin D in the milk as it greatly reduces the time required to perform the conventional HPLC analysis. An interesting variation was found among individual animals that may be associated with management factors and specific genetic effects. A relationship was highlighted between vitamin D and the genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin, the main bovine whey protein which is involved in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules such as retinol and vitamin D. The relatively high content of vitamin D in most milk samples suggests an opportunity to improve the natural content of vitamin D in milk either by acting on the herd management or selecting individuals genetically predisposed to produce milk with a higher vitamin D content.
Keywords: vitamin D; bovine milk; β-lactoglobulin
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Bulgari, O.; Caroli, A.M.; Chessa, S.; Rizzi, R.; Gigliotti, C. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin. Molecules 2013, 18, 10122-10131.
Bulgari O, Caroli AM, Chessa S, Rizzi R, Gigliotti C. Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin. Molecules. 2013; 18(9):10122-10131.
Bulgari, Omar; Caroli, Anna M.; Chessa, Stefania; Rizzi, Rita; Gigliotti, Carmen. 2013. "Variation of Vitamin D in Cow’s Milk and Interaction with β-Lactoglobulin." Molecules 18, no. 9: 10122-10131.