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Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7848-7864; doi:10.3390/molecules18077848
Article

Characterization of Protein and Peptide Binding to Nanogels Formed by Differently Charged Chitosan Derivatives

1,2,* , 2
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1 Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, RAS, Miklukho-Maklaya, 16/10, Moscow 117997, Russia 2 Centre of Bioengineering, RAS, Prospect 60-Letia Oktyabrya 7/1, Moscow 117312, Russia 3 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100, Turkey 4 AMPHORA Laboratories LLC, 5-ya Magistralnaya 11, Moscow 123007, Russia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 3 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitins and Chitosans)
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Abstract

Chitosan (Chi) is a natural biodegradable cationic polymer with remarkable potency as a vehicle for drug or vaccine delivery. Chi possesses multiple groups, which can be used both for Chi derivatization and for particle formation. The aim of this work was to produce stable nanosized range Chi gels (nanogels, NGs) with different charge and to study the driving forces of complex formation between Chi NGs and proteins or peptides. Positively charged NGs of 150 nm in diameter were prepared from hexanoyl chitosan (HC) by the ionotropic gelation method while negatively charged NGs of 190 nm were obtained from succinoyl Chi (SC) by a Ca2+ coacervation approach. NGs were loaded with a panel of proteins or peptides with different weights and charges. We show that NGs preferentially formed complexes with oppositely charged molecules, especially peptides, as was demonstrated by gel-electrophoresis, confocal microscopy and HPLC. Complex formation was accompanied by a change in zeta-potential and decrease in size. We concluded that complex formation between Chi NGs and peptide/proteins is mediated mostly by electrostatic interactions.
Keywords: chitosan nanogels; N-acyl chitosan derivatives; acidic proteins; basic proteins; ionotropic gelation; electrostatic interactions chitosan nanogels; N-acyl chitosan derivatives; acidic proteins; basic proteins; ionotropic gelation; electrostatic interactions
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zubareva, A.; Ilyina, A.; Prokhorov, A.; Kurek, D.; Efremov, M.; Varlamov, V.; Senel, S.; Ignatyev, P.; Svirshchevskaya, Е. Characterization of Protein and Peptide Binding to Nanogels Formed by Differently Charged Chitosan Derivatives. Molecules 2013, 18, 7848-7864.

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