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Molecules 2013, 18(5), 5389-5404; doi:10.3390/molecules18055389
Article

Curcumin and Its Carbocyclic Analogs: Structure-Activity in Relation to Antioxidant and Selected Biological Properties

1, 2, 2,3 and 1,*
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, Nova Scotia, B2N 5E3, Canada 2 Department of Chemistry, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, B4P 2R6, Canada 3 Science, Université Sainte Anne, Church Point, Nova Scotia, B0W 1M0, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Abstract

Curcumin is the major phenolic compound present in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Curcumin and 15 novel analogs were investigated for their antioxidant and selected biological activities. Strong relationships between the structure and evaluated activity revealed that the compounds with specific functional groups and carbon skeleton had specific biological profiles. Among the compounds tested, the derivatives (E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-5-((E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)cyclopentanone (3e), and (E)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-5-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acryloyl)-cyclopentanone (3d) and the parent compound curcumin exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity. Concerning the other biological activities studied the compound (E)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-5-((E)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-acryloyl)cyclopentanone (3d) was the most potent angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, while the derivatives (E)-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-((E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acryloyl)cyclohexanone (2b), (E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-6-((E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)cyclohexanone (2e) and (E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-5-((E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acryloyl)cyclopentanone (3e) exhibited strong tyrosinase inhibition. Moreover, (E)-2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-6-((E)-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-acryloyl)cyclohexanone (2e) was also found to be the strongest human HIV-1 protease inhibitor in vitro among the tested compounds. Cytotoxicity studies using normal human lung cells revealed that the novel curcumin as well as its carbocyclic analogs are not toxic.
Keywords: curcumin; antioxidant; tyrosinase; angiotensin converting enzyme; HIV curcumin; antioxidant; tyrosinase; angiotensin converting enzyme; HIV
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Bhullar, K.S.; Jha, A.; Youssef, D.; Rupasinghe, H.P.V. Curcumin and Its Carbocyclic Analogs: Structure-Activity in Relation to Antioxidant and Selected Biological Properties. Molecules 2013, 18, 5389-5404.

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