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Polyphenols, Antioxidant Potential and Color of Fortified Wines during Accelerated Ageing: The Madeira Wine Case Study
Centre of Exact Sciences and Engineering, University of Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9000-390 Funchal, Portugal
Madeira Wine Company, Rua dos Ferreiros, 191, 9000-082 Funchal, Portugal
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2013; in revised form: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Abstract: Polyphenols, antioxidant potential and color of three types of fortified Madeira wines were evaluated during the accelerated ageing, named as estufagem. The traditional estufagem process was set to 45 °C for 3 months. Overheating conditions, 1 month at 70 °C, were also examined. Total polyphenols (TP), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA) and total flavonoids (TF) were assessed by spectrophotometric methods, while individual polyphenols and furans were simultaneously determined by HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant potential (AP) was estimated by ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays, while color was evaluated by Glories and CIELab. Traditional estufagem decreased the TP and AP up to 20% and 26%, respectively, with final values similar to other wines. TMA of the Madeira wines from red grapes decreased during estufagem. Six hydroxybenzoic acids, three hydroxycinnamic acids, one stilbene, three flavonols and three flavan-3-ols were found in these wines. The prominent phenolics were hydroxycinnamates and hydroxybenzoates, even after estufagem. Most polyphenols decreased, with the exception of caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, gallic and syringic acids. Finally, both chromatic systems revealed that all wines tended to similar chromatic characteristics after estufagem. The study suggests that estufagem can be applied without high impact on polyphenols and antioxidant potential of these fortified wines.
Keywords: polyphenols; antioxidant potential; color; wines; heating; ageing
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Pereira, V.; Albuquerque, F.; Cacho, J.; Marques, J.C. Polyphenols, Antioxidant Potential and Color of Fortified Wines during Accelerated Ageing: The Madeira Wine Case Study. Molecules 2013, 18, 2997-3017.
Pereira V, Albuquerque F, Cacho J, Marques JC. Polyphenols, Antioxidant Potential and Color of Fortified Wines during Accelerated Ageing: The Madeira Wine Case Study. Molecules. 2013; 18(3):2997-3017.
Pereira, Vanda; Albuquerque, Francisco; Cacho, Juan; Marques, José C. 2013. "Polyphenols, Antioxidant Potential and Color of Fortified Wines during Accelerated Ageing: The Madeira Wine Case Study." Molecules 18, no. 3: 2997-3017.