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Quality Evaluation of Panax ginseng Roots Using a Rapid Resolution LC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Approach
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 369-873, Korea
Division of Life Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772, Korea
Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials & Processing and Department of Horticultural Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea
Technology Services Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Suwon 440-706, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2013; in revised form: 24 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013
Abstract: Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) contains several types of ginsenosides, which are considered the major active medicinal components of ginseng. The types and quantities of ginsenosides found in ginseng may differ, depending on the location of cultivation, making it necessary to establish a reliable method for distinguishing cultivation locations of ginseng roots. P. ginseng roots produced in different regions of Korea, China, and Japan have been unintentionally confused in herbal markets owing to their complicated plant sources. PCA and PLS-DA using RRLC-QTOF/MS data was able to differentiate between ginsengs cultivated in Korea, China, and Japan. The chemical markers accountable for such variations were identified through a PCA loadings plot, tentatively identified by RRLC-QTOF/MS and partially verified by available reference standards. The classification result can be used to identify P. ginseng origin.
Keywords: Korean ginseng; metabolomics; multivariate analysis; PCA; PLS-DA; RRLC-QTOF/MS
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Lee, D.-Y.; Kim, J.K.; Shrestha, S.; Seo, K.-H.; Lee, Y.-H.; Noh, H.-J.; Kim, G.-S.; Kim, Y.-B.; Kim, S.-Y.; Baek, N.-I. Quality Evaluation of Panax ginseng Roots Using a Rapid Resolution LC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Molecules 2013, 18, 14849-14861.
Lee D-Y, Kim JK, Shrestha S, Seo K-H, Lee Y-H, Noh H-J, Kim G-S, Kim Y-B, Kim S-Y, Baek N-I. Quality Evaluation of Panax ginseng Roots Using a Rapid Resolution LC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Approach. Molecules. 2013; 18(12):14849-14861.
Lee, Dae-Young; Kim, Jae K.; Shrestha, Sabina; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Lee, Youn-Hyung; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Geum-Soog; Kim, Yong-Bum; Kim, Seung-Yu; Baek, Nam-In. 2013. "Quality Evaluation of Panax ginseng Roots Using a Rapid Resolution LC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Approach." Molecules 18, no. 12: 14849-14861.