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The Seasonal Variation of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activity
Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema 09972-270, SP, Brazil
Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas 37130-000, MG, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2013; in revised form: 22 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Abstract: This study investigates the impact of seasonal variation on the chemical composition of essential oils from the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae) obtained over the course of one year (January–December 2011) and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the ripe fruits of the same plant. Furthermore, the essential oils of the leaves were investigated with respect to their antimicrobial activity. The essential oils of the leaves contain a mixture of monoterpenes, one diterpene and several sesquiterpenes. The main components were identified as the sesquiterpenes germacrene D (29%–50%) and bicyclogermacrene (24%–37%). No significant variation was observed for the composition of the essential oil of the leaves over the course ofthe year, except for the month of November, when the ripe fruit were collected. In this month, substantially decreased concentrations of germacrene D (28.8 ± 0.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (23.9 ± 0.6%) were measured and the emergence of spathulenol (10.4 ± 0.2%) was observed. The essential oils extracted from the ripe fruit revealed the presence of a variety of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and hydrocarbons. The main constituents of these oils were neryl (8.8 ± 0.2%) and geranyl (27.3 ± 0.7%) formates, γ-muurolene (10.3 ± 0.9%) and dendrolasin (8.23 ± 0.06%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of P. macrocarpa towards a range of bacterial and yeast strains was examined. In order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils obtained from the January collection of the leaves, broth microdilution assays were carried out, which showed a significant antimicrobial activity towards Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes A and D as well as C. gattii serotypes B and C.
Keywords: Porcelia macrocarpa; essential oils; seasonal variation; antimicrobial activity; C. neoformans
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da Silva, E.B.P.; Soares, M.G.; Mariane, B.; Vallim, M.A.; Pascon, R.C.; Sartorelli, P.; Lago, J.H.G. The Seasonal Variation of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules 2013, 18, 13574-13587.
da Silva EBP, Soares MG, Mariane B, Vallim MA, Pascon RC, Sartorelli P, Lago JHG. The Seasonal Variation of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activity. Molecules. 2013; 18(11):13574-13587.
da Silva, Erica B.P.; Soares, Marisi G.; Mariane, Bruna; Vallim, Marcelo A.; Pascon, Renata C.; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João H.G. 2013. "The Seasonal Variation of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Porcelia macrocarpa R.E. Fries (Annonaceae) and Their Antimicrobial Activity." Molecules 18, no. 11: 13574-13587.