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Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Maeji-ri, Heungeop-myeon, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710, Korea
School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
Div. Respiratory Viruses, Center for Infectious Diseases, Korea National Institute of Health, Gangoe-myeon, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbok 363-700, Korea
Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744, Korea
Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, Yonsei University, Maeji-ri, Heungeop-myeon, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 June 2013; in revised form: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
Abstract: Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs) were developed to maximize reflection contrast so that organs can be seen clearly in ultrasound imaging. UCAs increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) by linear and non-linear mechanisms and thus help more accurately visualize the internal organs and blood vessels. However, the UCAs on the market are not only expensive, but are also not optimized for use in various therapeutic research applications such as ultrasound-aided drug delivery. The UCAs fabricated in this study utilize conventional lipid and albumin for shell formation and perfluorobutane as the internal gas. The shape and density of the UCA bubbles were verified by optical microscopy and Cryo SEM, and compared to those of the commercially available UCAs, Definity® and Sonovue®. The size distribution and characteristics of the reflected signal were also analyzed using a particle size analyzer and ultrasound imaging equipment. Our experiments indicate that UCAs composed of spherical microbubbles, the majority of which were smaller than 1 um, were successfully synthesized. Microbubbles 10 um or larger were also identified when different shell characteristics and filters were used. These laboratory UCAs can be used for research in both diagnoses and therapies.
Keywords: ultrasound contrast agent; microbubble; cavitation; synthesis of microbubble; size control
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Park, J.; Park, D.; Shin, U.; Moon, S.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.S.; Park, H.; Choi, K.; Jung, B.; Oh, J.; Seo, J. Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents. Molecules 2013, 18, 13078-13095.
Park J, Park D, Shin U, Moon S, Kim C, Kim HS, Park H, Choi K, Jung B, Oh J, Seo J. Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents. Molecules. 2013; 18(10):13078-13095.
Park, Jingam; Park, Donghee; Shin, Unchul; Moon, Sanghyub; Kim, Chihyun; Kim, Han S.; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Kiju; Jung, Bongkwang; Oh, Jaemin; Seo, Jongbum. 2013. "Synthesis of Laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents." Molecules 18, no. 10: 13078-13095.