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Molecules 2013, 18(10), 12222-12240; doi:10.3390/molecules181012222

Promising Low-Toxicity of Viologen-Phosphorus Dendrimers against Embryonic Mouse Hippocampal Cells

1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 4, 1, 2, 1 and 1,*
1 Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, Lodz 90236, Poland 2 Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 Route de Narbonne, Toulouse 31077, France 3 Laboratoire de Chimie et de Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologique,Université Paris Descartes, PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR 860, 45, rue des Saints Pères, Paris 75006, France 4 Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (INANOTECH)-MAScIR (Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), ENSET, Avenue de l'Armée Royale, Madinat El Irfane, Rabat 10100, Morocco
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 August 2013 / Revised: 24 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
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A new class of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers (VPDs) has been recently shown to possess the ability to inhibit neurodegenerative processes in vitro. Nevertheless, in the Central Nervous Systems domain, there is little information on their impact on cell functions, especially on neuronal cells. In this work, we examined the influence of two VPD (VPD1 and VPD3) of zero generation (G0) on murine hippocampal cell line (named mHippoE-18). Extended analyses of cell responses to these nanomolecules comprised cytotoxicity test, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation studies, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) assay, cell death detection, cell morphology assessment, cell cycle studies, as well as measurements of catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) level. The results indicate that VPD1 is more toxic than VPD3. However, these two tested dendrimers did not cause a strong cellular response, and induced a low level of apoptosis. Interestingly, VPD1 and VPD3 treatment led to a small decline in ROS level compared to untreated cells, which correlated with slightly increased catalase activity. This result indicates that the VPDs can indirectly lower the level of ROS in cells. Summarising, low-cytotoxicity on mHippoE-18 cells together with their ability to quench ROS, make the VPDs very promising nanodevices for future applications in the biomedical field as nanocarriers and/or drugs per se.
Keywords: apoptosis; cytotoxicity; hippocampal cell line; ROS; viologen-phosphorus dendrimers apoptosis; cytotoxicity; hippocampal cell line; ROS; viologen-phosphorus dendrimers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lazniewska, J.; Janaszewska, A.; Miłowska, K.; Caminade, A.-M.; Mignani, S.; Katir, N.; Kadib, A.E.; Bryszewska, M.; Majoral, J.-P.; Gabryelak, T.; Klajnert-Maculewicz, B. Promising Low-Toxicity of Viologen-Phosphorus Dendrimers against Embryonic Mouse Hippocampal Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 12222-12240.

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