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Molecules 2013, 18(10), 11768-11782; doi:10.3390/molecules181011768
Article

Lipid Classes and Fatty Acid Regiodistribution in Triacylglycerols of Seed Oils of Two Sambucus Species (S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L.)

1
, 1
, 2,* , 2
 and 3
1 Department of Environmental and Plant Protection, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Manastur 3-5, Romania 2 Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Manastur 3-5, Romania 3 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Manastur 3-5, Romania
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 4 September 2013 / Published: 25 September 2013
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Abstract

The oil content and fatty acid composition of total lipids (TLs) and main lipid classes (NLs- neutral and PLs- polar lipids) in seeds of two wild Sambucus species (S. nigra and S. ebulus) from Transylvania (Romania) were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC-MS). In addition, the positional distribution of fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) was determined by hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase. The seeds were found to be rich in fat (22.40–24.90 g/100g) with high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ranging from 68.96% (S. ebulus) to 75.15% (S. nigra). High ratios of PUFAs/SFAs (saturated fatty acids), ranging from 7.06 (S. nigra) to 7.64 (S. ebulus), and low ratios of n-6/n-3, ranging from 0.84 (S. nigra) to 1.51 (S. ebulus), were determined in both oils. The lipid classes/subclasses analyzed (PLs, MAGs—monoacylglycerols, DAGs—diacylglycerols, FFAs—free fatty acids, TAGs and SEs—sterol esters) were separated and identified using thin-layer chromatography. The fatty acid compositions of the TAG fractions were practically identical to the profiles of TLs, with the same dominating fatty acids in both analyzed species. SEs and FFAs, were characterized by high proportions of SFAs. The sn-2 position of TAGs was esterified predominantly with linoleic acid (43.56% for S. nigra and 50.41% for S. ebulus).
Keywords: Sambucus seed oils; fatty acid composition; lipid class; stereospecific analysis; GC-MS Sambucus seed oils; fatty acid composition; lipid class; stereospecific analysis; GC-MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dulf, F.V.; Oroian, I.; Vodnar, D.C.; Socaciu, C.; Pintea, A. Lipid Classes and Fatty Acid Regiodistribution in Triacylglycerols of Seed Oils of Two Sambucus Species (S. nigra L. and S. ebulus L.). Molecules 2013, 18, 11768-11782.

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