Molecules 2013, 18(1), 997-1014; doi:10.3390/molecules18010997
Article

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida) and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition

1 Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia 3 Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia 4 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic Universiti Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Pahang, Malaysia 5 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan P.O. Box 313, Iran
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2012; in revised form: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 15 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract: In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150–300 bar), temperature (40–50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60–120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO2 extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO2 extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO2 extraction conditions.
Keywords: winter melon (Benincasa hispida); supercritical carbon dioxide extraction; response surface methodology; fatty acid composition; antioxidant activity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bimakr, M.; Rahman, R.A.; Taip, F.S.; Adzahan, N.M.; Sarker, M.Z.I.; Ganjloo, A. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida) and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition. Molecules 2013, 18, 997-1014.

AMA Style

Bimakr M, Rahman RA, Taip FS, Adzahan NM, Sarker MZI, Ganjloo A. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida) and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition. Molecules. 2013; 18(1):997-1014.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly A.; Taip, Farah S.; Adzahan, Noranizan M.; Sarker, Md. Z.I.; Ganjloo, Ali. 2013. "Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Seed Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida) and Its Antioxidant Activity and Fatty Acid Composition." Molecules 18, no. 1: 997-1014.

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