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Molecules 2013, 18(1), 418-429; doi:10.3390/molecules18010418

(3S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic Acid from Cichorium endivia. L Induces Apoptosis of Human Colorectal Cancer HCT-8 Cells

2,*  and 1,*
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 13 December 2012 / Accepted: 17 December 2012 / Published: 28 December 2012
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Cichorium endivia. L, consumed either cooked or eaten raw in salads, is a popular kind of vegetable cultivated all around the World. Its components have been widely used in folk medicine in anti-inflammatory therapy. However, the anti-cancer activity of the components has never been reported. In this study, (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (1), an amino acid isolated from C. endivia. L, was found for the first time to show cytotoxic activity in colorectal cancer cell line HCT-8. Compound 1 at concentrations of 0.5–4 μM induced apoptosis of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The compound 1-induced apoptosis in HCT-8 cells was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, the up-regulation of Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. In addition, compound 1 suppressed the activation of NF-κB, which acts as an inhibitor of apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggested that compound 1 could significantly induce apoptosis of HCT-8 cells through the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway, and thus can be considered as a potential candidate for developing chemotherapeutic drugs against cancer.
Keywords: Cichorium endivia; (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid; NF-κB; apoptosis Cichorium endivia; (3S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid; NF-κB; apoptosis
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Wang, F.-X.; Deng, A.-J.; Li, M.; Wei, J.-F.; Qin, H.-L.; Wang, A.-P. (3S)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic Acid from Cichorium endivia. L Induces Apoptosis of Human Colorectal Cancer HCT-8 Cells. Molecules 2013, 18, 418-429.

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