Molecules 2013, 18(1), 1128-1137; doi:10.3390/molecules18011128
Article

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

1,* email, 2, 3, 4, 3, 5, 3 and 3
Received: 29 November 2012; in revised form: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants 2012)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as “sacaca”. Two morphotypes are known: white and red “sacaca”. The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%–37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10−3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10−8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC50 less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.
Keywords: Croton cajucara; 7-hydroxycalamenene; essential oils; antimicrobial activity; antioxidant activity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azevedo, M.M.B.; Chaves, F.C.M.; Almeida, C.A.; Bizzo, H.R.; Duarte, R.S.; Campos-Takaki, G.M.; Alviano, C.S.; Alviano, D.S. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.. Molecules 2013, 18, 1128-1137.

AMA Style

Azevedo MMB, Chaves FCM, Almeida CA, Bizzo HR, Duarte RS, Campos-Takaki GM, Alviano CS, Alviano DS. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.. Molecules. 2013; 18(1):1128-1137.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azevedo, Mariana M.B.; Chaves, Francisco C.M.; Almeida, Catia A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Duarte, Rafael S.; Campos-Takaki, Galba M.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S. 2013. "Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of 7-Hydroxy-calamenene-Rich Essential Oils from Croton cajucara Benth.." Molecules 18, no. 1: 1128-1137.

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