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Molecules 2012, 17(9), 11229-11241; doi:10.3390/molecules170911229
Article

Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Gymnosperma glutinosum Leaves

1,* , 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 2, 2 and 2
1 Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza 66451, Nuevo León, Mexico 2 Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza 66451, Nuevo León, Mexico 3 Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Tammannstrasse 2, Göttingen D-37077, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2012 / Revised: 7 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 September 2012 / Published: 20 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of Gymnosperma glutinosum (Asteraceae) leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1) and (+)-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-ent-labd-7-ene (2), as well as the new ent-labdane diterpene (−)-13S,14R,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-ent-labd-8(9)-ene (3). In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4) was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the in vitro L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1) and the new ent-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the ent-labdane 2 showed significant (p < 0.05) and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78%) against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.
Keywords: Gymnosperma glutinosum; asteraceae; Mexican medicinal plant; lymphoma cells; cancer; ent-Labdane diterpenes Gymnosperma glutinosum; asteraceae; Mexican medicinal plant; lymphoma cells; cancer; ent-Labdane diterpenes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Quintanilla-Licea, R.; Morado-Castillo, R.; Gomez-Flores, R.; Laatsch, H.; Verde-Star, M.J.; Hernández-Martínez, H.; Tamez-Guerra, P.; Tamez-Guerra, R.; Rodríguez-Padilla, C. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from Gymnosperma glutinosum Leaves. Molecules 2012, 17, 11229-11241.

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